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(完整版)2021年考研英语(一)真题及答案解析

来源:厦大考研网 发布时间:2021-01-13 22:22:05

 

Directions:

Read the following text.Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

 

Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems.It 1 in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then 2 starts to slowly decline as we age.But 3 aging is inevitable, scientists are finding that certain changes in brain function may not be.

One study found that muscle loss and the 4 of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence.This suggests the 5 that lifestyle factors might help prevent or 6 this type of decline.

The researchers looked at data that 7 measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and 8 that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period.They found that middle-aged people 9 higher measures of abdominal fat 10 worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years 11 .

For women, the association may be 12 to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be 13 .It is hoped that future studies could 14 these differences and perhaps lead to different 15 for men and women.

16 there are steps you can 17 to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental 18 .The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your 19 of aerobic exercise and following Mediterranean-style 20 that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

1.A.pauses B.return C.peaks D.fades

2.A.alternatively B.formally C.accidentally D.generally

3.A.while B.since C.once D.until

4.A.detection B.accumulation C.consumption D.separation

5.A.possibility B.decision C.goal D.requirement

6.A.delay B.ensure C.seek D.utilize

7.A.modified B.supported C.included D.predicted

8.A.devoted B.compared C.converted D.applied

9.A.with B.above C.by D.against

10.A.lived B.managed C.scored D.played

11.A.ran out B.set off C.drew in D.went by

12.A.superior B.attributable C.parallel D.resistant

13.A.restored B.isolated C.involved D.controlled

14.A.alter B.spread C.remove D.explain

15.A.compensations B.symptoms C.demands D.treatments

16.A.Likewise B.Meanwhile C.Therefore D.Instead

17.A.change B.watch C.count D.take

18.A.well-being B.process C.formation D.coordination

19.A.level B.love C.knowledge D.space

20.A.design B.routine C.diet D.prescription

【答案】

1-5:CDABA

6-10:ACBAC

11-15:DBCDD

16-20:BDAAC

【解析】

完型一般第一句不命题,为文章主旨。本篇完型第一句为流动智力(fluid intelligence)与短期记忆以及解决新问题时快速思考、逻辑思维和抽象思维有关。

1 题考动词辨析,“它(流体智力)在成年早期_____,一段时间达到平衡,然后开始随年龄增长而慢慢下降”。对比四个选项,A“暂停”,B“回来”,C“达到最高点”,D“逐渐消失”。带入原文,选项C达到最高点——平衡——开始下降更符合发展规律,因此选C。

2 题考副词辨析,修饰“开始随年龄增长而慢慢下降”,对比选项A“或者”,B“正式地”,C“偶然地”,D“通常,一般”,带入原文D语义通顺。

3 题考查连词,“_____变老是不可避免的,科学家发现大脑功能的特定改变可能并不是(不可避免的)”,前后语义相反。对比选项A“虽然”,B“自从;因为”C“一旦”,D“直到”,A选项逻辑关系相反,因此选A。

4 题考名词辨析,“一项研究发现肌肉损失以及腹部的体脂的_____与流体智力的下降有关”,所填单词与“肌肉损失”色彩应保持一致,是消极色彩。对比选项,A“ 侦查,探测”,B“积累”C“消耗,消费”D“分离”。根据生活经验,我们肚子很容易长脂肪,且体脂积累符合消极色彩,因此选B。

5 题考名词辨析,“这表明了生活方式因素可能能够预防这种下降的_____”。对比选项,A“可能性”,B“决定”,C“目标”,D“要求”。原文既然是“可能”,A更符合语义。

6 题考动词辨析,逻辑关系or并列,prevent“预防”或_____,一致性关系。比较选项,A“推迟”,B“确保”,C“寻求”,D“利用”,和prevent语义一致的是A。

7 题考动词辨析,that定从修饰data,真正主谓宾搭配是“数据_____肌肉和腹部脂肪测量”。比较选项,A“修改”,B“支持”,C“包括”,D“预测”,带入语境,C符合语义。

8 题考动词词组辨析,“_____这些肌肉和腹部脂肪数据与流体智力的变化”。比较选项,A devote… to“把……奉献于”,B compare…to“把……与……比较”,C convert…to“把……转化成……”,D apply…to“把……应用于……”,实验研究的是肌肉和腹部脂肪数据与流体智力变化的关系,因此选B。

9 题考介词辨析,介词短语“_____较高腹部脂肪测量数据的”修饰的是“中年人”,带入选项A“有”,B“在……上”,C“通过”,D“反对”,A符合语义。

10 题考动词辨析,“有较高腹部脂肪的中年人_____在流体智力测量上更差”。比较选项,A“生活”,B“完成”,C“得分”,D“玩耍”,提到了“测量”应该就有数据,所以C符合。

11 题考动词短语,“随着时间_____”,比较选项,A“用完,耗尽”,B“启程,出发”,C“使参与”,D“流逝”,和时间构成搭配D。

12 题考形容词辨析,“这种联系(脂肪越多,流体智力越低)” _____免疫力的改变,A be superior to“比……更好”,B be attributable to“可归因于……”,C be parallel to“与……平行”,D be resistant to“对……有抵抗力的”,原文讨论联系的原因,因果关系是B。

13 题考动词辨析,“对女性来说,联系可归因于免疫系统的变化;在男性身上,免疫系统并没有被_____”,后一句“希望未来的研究这些不同”,A“恢复”,B“隔离”,C“参与;有关联”,D“控制”,既然女性和男性不同,所以C符合语义。

14 题考动词辨析,“希望未来的研究_____这些不同”,A“改变”,B“传播”,C“移除”,D“解释”,D符合语义。

15 题考名词辨析,“希望未来研究能引起对女性和男性不同的_____”,A“补偿”,B“症状”,C“需求”,D“治疗”,前文说流体智力变低,未来研究要解决问题,就要对症治疗,因此D符合语义。

16 题考副词辨析,前文未来研究的期待,后文“我们可以采取措施帮助减少腹部脂肪”,A“同样地”,B“同时”,C“因此”,D“反而,却”,选B符合逻辑关系。

17 题考动词辨析,和17空构成谓宾搭配的是“_____措施(steps)”,一般用take steps,选D take。

18 题考名词辨析,“保护身体和心理_____”,A“健康”,B“过程”,C“形成”,D“协调”,经常说身体和心理健康,选A。

19 题考名词辨析,增加有氧锻炼的_____ ,A“水平,程度”,B“喜爱”,C“知识”,D“空间”,选A。

20 题考动词辨析,“富含纤维的_____”,A“设计”,B“常规,惯例”,C“饮食”,D“处方”,谈到了纤维,选C符合语义。

 

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A

 

Directions: Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)

 

How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise.This year's rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year's, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.

Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer.Why, the argument goes, should a car-driving pensioner from Lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker from Surrey? Equally there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.

However, over the past12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years.It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel.The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions.However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.

The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate.This should form part of a wider package of measures to address the long-running problems on Britain's railways.Yes, more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently.The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

21.The author holds that this year's increase in rail passengers fares_____.

A.will ease train operation's' burden.

B.has kept pace with inflation.

C.is a big surprise to commuters.

D.remains an unreasonable measure.

 

22.The stockbroker in 2 is used to stand for_____.

A.car drivers

B.rail travellers

C.local investors

D.ordinary taxpayers

 

23.It is indicated in 3 that train operators_____.

A.are offering compensations to commuters.

B.are trying to repair relations with the unions.

C.have failed to provide an adequate service.

D.have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes.

 

24.If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face_____.

A.the loss of investment.

B.the collapse of operations.

C.a reduction of revenue

D.a change of ownership.

 

25.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

A.Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?

B.Constant Complaining Doesn't Work

C.Can Nationalization Bring Hope?

D.Ever-rising Fares Aren't Sustainable

 

Last year marked the third year in a row of that Indonesia’s bleak rate of deforestation has slowed in pace.One reason for the turnaround may be the country's antipoverty program.

In 2007, Indonesia started phasing in program that gives money to its poorest residents under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keep kids in school or get regular medical care.Called conditional cash transfers or CCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty.They're already used in dozens of countries worldwide.In Indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine to substantially reduce severe growth problems among children.

But CCT programs don't generally consider effects on the environment.In fact, poverty alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed as conflicting goals, says Paul Ferraro, an economist at Johns Hopkins University.

That's because economic growth can be correlated with environmental degradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with greater poverty.However, those correlations don't prove cause and effect.The only previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in Mexico that had instituted CCTs, supported the traditional view.There, as people got more money, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat, Ferraro says.

Such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though.Ferraro wanted to see if Indonesia's poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation.Indonesia has the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates.

Ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from 2008 to 2012-including during Indonesia's phase-in of the antipoverty program-in 7, 468 forested villages across 15 provinces and multiple islands.The duo separated the effects of the CCT program on forest loss from other factors, like weather and macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest loss.With that, "we see that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction in deforestation," Ferraro says.

That's likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshift insurance policies against inclement weather, Ferraro says.Typically, if rains are delayed, people may clear land to plant more rice to supplement their harvests.With the CCTs, individuals instead can use the money to supplement their harvests.

Whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody's guess.Ferraro suggests the importance of growing rice and market access.And regardless of transferability, the study shows that what's good for people may also be good for the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs.

26.According to the first two paragraphs, CCT programs aim to_____.

A.facilitate health care reform.

B.help poor families get better off.

C.improve local education systems.

D.lower deforestation rates.

 

27.The study based on an area in Mexico is cited to show that_____.

A.cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor.

B.CCT programs have he helped preserve traditional lifestyles.

C.antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers.

D.economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation.

 

28.In his study about Indonesia, Ferraro intends to find out_____.

A.its acceptance level of CCTs.

B.its annual rate of poverty alleviation.

C.the relation of ccts to its forest loss.

D.the role of its forests in climate change.

 

29.According to Ferraro, the CCT program in Indonesia is most valuable in that_____.

A.it will benefit other Asian countries.

B.it will reduce regional inequality.

C.it can protect the environment.

D.it can boost grain production.

 

30.What is the text centered on?

A.The effects of a program.

B.The debates over a program.

C.The process of a study.

D.The transferability of a study.

 

As a historian who's always searching for the text or the image that makes us re-evaluate the past, I've become preoccupied with looking for photographs that show our Victorian ancestors smiling (what better way to shatter the image of 19th-century prudery?).I've found quite a few, and- since I started posting them on Twitter-they have been causing quite stir.People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh.They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience of laughter.

Of course, I need to concede that my collection of 'Smiling Victorians' makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900, the majority of which show sitters posing miserably and stiffly in front of painted backdrops, or staring absently into the middle distance.How do we explain this trend?

During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure times were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing an image on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete, resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted position or adjusted their limbs.The thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its magical duties was too much to contemplate, and so a non-committal blank stare became the norm.

But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today's digital standards, the exposure was almost instantaneous.Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.

One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesy grin.“Nature gave us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular Victorian maxim, alluding to the fact that before the birth of proper dentistry, mouths were often in a shocking state of hygiene.A flashing set of healthy and clean, regular pearly whites' rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve of the super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).

A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked class: drunks, tramps, prostitutes and buffoonish music hall performers might gurn and grin with a smile as wide as Lewis Carroll's gum-exposing Cheshire Cat, but it was not a becoming look for properly bred persons.Even Mark Twain, a man who enjoyed a hearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there could be "nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever".

31.According to Paragraph 1, the author's posts on Twitter._____

A.changed people's impression of the Victorians.

B.highlighted social media's role in Victorian studies.

C.re-evaluated the Victorians' notion of public image.

D.illustrated the development of Victorian photography.

 

32.What does author say about the Victorian portraits he has collected? _____

A.They are in popular use among historians.

B.They are rare among photographs of that age.

C.They mirror 19th-century social conventions.

D.They show effects of different exposure times.

 

33.What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s? _____

A.Their inherent social sensitiveness.

B.Their tension before the camera.

C.Their distrust of new inventions.

D.Their unhealthy dental condition.

 

34.Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures was_____.

A.a deep-root belief.

B.a misguided attitude.

C.a controversial view.

D.a thought-provoking idea.

 

35.Which of the following questions does the text answer?_____

A.Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?

B.Why did the Victorians start view photographs?

C.What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?

D.How did smiling in photographs become a post-Victorian norm?

 

From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based companies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband connections had the power and incentive to favor affiliated websites over their rivals.That's why there has been such a strong demand for rules that would prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online, preserving the freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.

Yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill-in part because of pushback from broadband providers, anti-regulatory conservatives and the courts.A federal appeals court weighed in again Tuesday, but instead of providing badly needed resolution, it only prolonged the fight.At issue before the U.S.Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit was the latest take of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on net neutrality, adopted on a party-line vote in 2017.The Republican-penned order not only eliminated the strict net neutrality rules the FCC had adopted when it had a Democratic majority in 2015, but rejected the commission's authority to require broadband providers to do much of anything.The order also declared that state and local governments couldn't regulate broadband providers either.

The commission argued that other agencies would protect against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of Netflix and Apple TV.Yet the FCC also ended the investigations of broadband providers that imposed data caps on their rivals' streaming services but not their own.

On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order deregulating broadband providers, citing a Supreme Court ruling from 2005 that upheld a similarly deregulatory move.But Judge Patricia Millett rightly argued in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband service,” and said Congress or the Supreme Court could intervene to "avoid trapping Internet regulation in technological anachronism."

In the meantime, the court threw out the FCC's attempt to block all state rules on net neutrality, while preserving the commission's power to preempt individual state laws that undermine its order.That means more battles like the one now going on between the Justice Department and California, which enacted a tough net neutrality law in the wake of the FCC's abdication.

The endless legal battles and back-and-for at the FCC cry out for Congress to act.It needs to give the commission explicit authority once and for all to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network and to create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online.

36.There has long been concern that broadband provides would_____.

A.bring web-based firms under control.

B.slow down the traffic on their network.

C.show partiality in treating clients.

D.intensify competition with their rivals.

 

37.Faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the Fcc_____.

A.Sticks to an out-of-date order.

B.Takes an anti-regulatory stance.

C.Has issued a special resolution.

D.Has allowed the states to intervene.

 

38.What can be learned about AT&T from Paragraph 3?

A.It protects against unfair competition.

B.It engages in anti-competitive practices.

C.It is under the FCC's investigation.

D.It is in pursuit of quality service.

 

39.Judge Patricia Millett argues that the appeals court's decision_____.

A.focuses on trivialities.

B.conveys an ambiguous message.

C.is at odds with its earlier rulings.

D.is out of touch with reality.

 

40.What does the author argue in the last paragraph?

A.Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.

B.The FCC should be put under strict supervision.

C.Rules need to be set to diversify online services.

D.Broadband providers' rights should be protected.

 

【答案解析】

Text 1

21 细节题 题干问作者认为火车费用的增加, 定位点第一段最后一句,转折句后说but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.“ 依旧在通货膨胀以上,价格依旧很贵 ” 所以答案选择 D.remains an unreasonable measure.

22 例证题 股票交易者代表——,定位到第二段, “ rail network should be borne by those who use it ”指的 rail travelers ,所以答案选择 B.rail travelers

23 推理题 火车运营者______.定位句 “ but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel” 乘客可以期待更好的服务,但是他们没有得到。所以, C.have failed to provide an adequate service.

24 细节题 题干中说,如果不能平息乘客,铁路将会面临,定位到最后一段“ The threat of nationalization may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.” 前文讲到国有化,转折之后说会有报复性事件发生,主要围绕所有制问题。所以,答案选择 D .a change of ownership.

25 主旨题 文章主要围绕票价问题展开讨论,文章首段首句给出问题How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? 问题的答案即答案所以文章中心词是fare ,答案为 D.Ever-rising Fares Aren't Sustainable

Text 2

26 细节题 CCT题干中出现aim to 询问目的,定位原文design to 。题干中说, 根据前两段, CCT项目目的是, 根据题干中询问目的,定位 these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty.文章中说减少不公平和贫困的循环。所以,答案选择 B.help poor families get better off 帮助贫困家庭变好。

27 例证题 题干中问墨西哥区域的研究表明, 答案所支持的观点,定位句在However, those correlations don’t prove cause and effect.The only previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in Mexico that had instituted CCTs, supported the traditional view.讲的环境和贫困之前的因果关系。 所以,答案选择D.economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation.

28 细节题 题干中关于印度尼西亚的研究,Ferraro 打算发现,根据题干信息定位6段, The s effects of the CCT program on forest loss from other factors, like weather and macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest loss.即CCT项目和森林毁坏之间的关系。答案为 C.the relation of CCTs to its forest loss.

29 细节题 根据Ferraro , CCT项目在印度尼西亚是最有价值的, 因为_____ 根据题干信息定位 “ the study shows that what’s good for people may also be good for the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs.” 避免森林破坏的价值就超过了项目本身的成本, 所以答案选择为 C.it can protect the environment.

30 主旨题 文章主要关于什么? 这道主旨题,更侧重于文章结构,三段首句出现转折句,“ But CCT programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment.” 谈到 effect , 答案为A.The effects of a program.

Text 3

31 细节题 题干问第一段,作者对于Twitter的立场, 根据题干信息定位“They have been causing quite a stir.People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh.”人们很惊讶看到这些证据, 说明和原来人们的想法不一致,所以是发生了变化。所以,答案选择A.changed people’s impression of the Victorians.

32 细节题 题干中问作者对于他收集的维多利亚人肖像的观点是什么? 根据题干信息定位二段首句 Of course, I need to concede that my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’ makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900 , “ tiny percentage ” “微小的份额” ,所以答案选择 B.They are rare among photographs of that age.

33 细节题 题干中问19世纪80年代照片中的维多利亚人不笑的原因,根据题干信息定位到 A flashing set of healthy and clean, regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve of the super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).当时人们的口腔卫生问题没有办法保证。所以,答案选择D.Their unhealthy dental condition.

34.例证题 题干中问引用马克吐温的例子为了说明,照片中笑容不被允许____根据题干里的信息,定位句为前面 “but it was not a becoming look for properly bred persons” 笑在当地的文化中被认为不是有教养的人该有的表情,所以答案为A.a deep-root belief.

35 主旨题 题干问文章回答了什么问题,本质就是问文章的主要内容。文章首段明确提出维多利亚人照片笑容少。 所以答案选择 A.Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?

Text 4

36 细节题 题干问宽带产生的担忧是______.根据题干信息定位到第一段最后一句 That’s why there has been such a strong demand for rules that would prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online , “picking winners and losers online” “产生了偏袒”。 答案 C.show partiality in treating clients.在对待客户上产生偏袒。

37 细节题 题干问面对中立原则的需要,FCC_______ .根据题干信息定位到二段 FCC 采用的标准中讲到 “The order also declared that state and local governments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.” “州和当地的政府不能管理宽带供应商” 和前文说对于宽带供应商的管理相反。 所以答案选B.Takes an anti-regulatory stance.

38 推理题 题干问根据第三段AT&T可以推理出什么? 题干定位到三段首句The commission argued that other agencies would protect against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T.说明AT&T是anti-competitive behavior的例子,

所以答案选择B.It engages in anti-competitive practices.

39 细节题 题干问 Patricia Millett 认为巡回法院的决定是______.根据题干信息定位到“Judge Patricia Millett rightly argued in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband service,” 其中核心词汇 “unhinged ” “不依靠” “不依靠事实得出的结果” , 所以答案选择 D.is out of touch with reality.

40 细节题 题干问最后一段作者的观点,A选项定位到“The endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the FCC cry out for Congress to act” 国会需要采取行动确保网络公平,含义一致; B“选项FCC应该受到严格的监管”没有提及; C“选项中说规则需要制定确保在线服务多样化”未提及; D“宽带提供商的权利应该被保护”未提及。

 

Section II Reading Comprehension Part B

 

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order.For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes.Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence is typically depicted as something sinister that will upend our way of life.When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-mass unemployment predictions?

A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services found that companies currently use Al more often in computer-to-computer activities than in automating human activities.One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempts.

Here are a few other ways AI is aiding companies without replacing employees:

Better hiring practices

Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from hiring decisions."There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are much more biased than what AI does," says Pedro Domingos, author of The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World and a computer science _____(41)One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor.It uses analytics to help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process.

More effective marketing

Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open rates.One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10 percent when it comes to email open rates.This can mean millions more in revenue._____(42)There are “tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,” says Patrick H.Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT.

Saving customers money

Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills saving them money while helping the environment.Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut down on the cost of electricity.Insurance companies meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI models that more accurately access risk."Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much," says Domingos, _____(43)

Improved accuracy

Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more valuable," says Winston.It "helps people make smarter decisions." _____(44)

Protecting and maintaining infrastructure

A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen."If they fail first and then you fix them, it's very expensive," says Domingos._____(45)

[A] I replaces the boring parts of your job.If you're doing research, you can have AI go out and look for relevant sources and information that otherwise you just wouldn't have time for.

[B] One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review contracts during an audit.This process, along with employees reviewing the contracts, is faster and more accurate.

[C] There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes advertising performance across multiple channels like Adwords, Bing and social media and makes adjustments or suggestions about where advertising funds will yield best results.

[D] You want to predict if something needs attention now and point to where it's useful for employees to go to.

[E] Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much, or they would charge them too little and then it would cost [the company] money.

[F] We're also giving our customers better channels versus picking up the phone to accomplish something beyond human scale.

[G] AI looks at resumes in greater numbers than humans would be able to, and selects the more promising candidates.

41._____.

42._____.

43._____.

44._____.

45._____.

 

【答案】41.[E] 42.[G] 43.[F] 44.[A] 45.[B]

41.【考点】重点信息的提取

【解析】本段考查学生对于段落布局以及句子之间关系的把握。开头句使用You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion“最好先拖一拖再表达自己的观点”引出话题,且出现了E选项中的decide,破折号之后的句子总结:之前提到的东西都能让争论更有力,更有效。紧随其后的句子it’s also a good idea是小标题里经常考查的作者观点句的表达,所以可以作为定位句,delay (the conversation)和标题当中的wait做同意替换。所以答案是E:decide whether to wait.

42.【考点】逻辑把握

【解析】本段考察学生对于文章逻辑的把握。第一句中引用别人所说的话,是小标题中常考的例证逻辑,且里边包含观点句常用的祈使句。第二句使用短语you are more likely to be heard,给出委婉建议,但本题最容易找答案的定位句是第四句中but之后的信息,转折逻辑之后是重点,句子里有选项G中的关键词shared goal的复现。所以正确答案为G。

43.【考点】语义理解+句间关系总结

【解析】本段重点考察的是句子含义的理解和句子之间关系的总结。首句this step may sound overly deferential“这听起来可能太过恭敬”,deferential是体现观点的词,感情色彩偏消极。接着是通过询问得到行动允许。最后一句提到voicing your disagreement表达不赞同,所以选择F:ask permission to disagree.

44.【考点】语义概括+观点句提取

【解析】本段重点考察的是句子语义的概括,第一句“heart racing”,”face turning red”,第二句“reluctance or anxiety”,第三句“mixed message”是核心观点的反向表达。第四句“deep breath”,第六句“slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps”是作者的正面建议,且第六句中出现了A选项关键词calm的复现。所以根据语义概括和关键词的提取,正确答案为A:stay calm保持冷静

45.【考点】中心句提取+语义推断

【解析】本题有比较明显的中心句Instead of saying something like “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.”体现了在表达观点时应该语气谦虚,而不是强硬的拒绝。结合标题内容,最接近的是B:stay humble 保持谦虚。

 

Section III Translation

 

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese.Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

 

World war was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies(46)Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education.(47)And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly (though unevenly) during the 1970s and 1980s.

The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems.There was first the rate of growth:(48)in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.Second growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions.And third growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake/ For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization.When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years,(49)and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution-this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan.(50)High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.In the 1960s and 1970s,

European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

 

46.Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.

【答案】战争结束后,一些社会随之出现了。这些社会的入学率在战前的几十年里一直保持在相关年龄段的3%-5%。

【解析】come out of…由……产生,从……出来;enrollment入学,登记;decades数十年。

 

47.And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.

【答案】在那些社会中,人们渴望接受到更高等的教育。这个需求延伸到了战前那些没有想过上大学的群体和社会阶层中。

【解析】rose:rise的过去式“上升”;attend上大学。

 

48.in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.

【答案】在西欧的许多国家,20世纪60年代,接受高等教育的学生人数在五年内翻了一番,到70年代中期,在七年,八年或十年里又翻了一番。

【解析】double作动词,“翻倍”。

 

49.and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.

【答案】当新员工主要是刚毕业的年轻男女时,他们很大程度上定义了该学院学术生活的规范。

【解析】predominantly主要地,以……为主;fresh新进的;norms标准,规范;faculty学院,系。

 

50.High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.

【答案】高增长率增加了学术创新的机会,同时也削弱了教师和学生在稳定或缓慢的成长过程中,被认可为学者这群体的形式和过程。

【解析】academic innovation学术创新;weakened削弱,减少;admit承认,认可。

 

Section IV Writing

 

Part A (10 points)

Directions:

A foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in China.Write him/her an email to make some suggestions.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end.Use "Li Ming Open" instead.

You do not need to write the address.

 

【范文】Dear friend,

Hope this letter finds you well I am glad to hear you intend to find a job in China, so I would like to extend my warmest welcome as well as provide you with a few suggestions on job-hunting.

First, you can start from listing 3 to 5 cities which you would like to work or live in To be more specific, rate them by location, working opportunities and prospects and, of course the city's happiness level.What's more, be prepared for the culture shock.There is a sharp contrast in how eastern people and western people work.The former prefers working individually while the latter is prone to teamwork.There is one more point that, I suppose I have to touch on: make good use of online job-hunting applications, such as BOSS and 51Job.

I hope you will find my humble suggestions be of help.I am looking forward to your reply.Best wishes.

Yours,

Li Ming

 

Part B (15 points)

Directions:

 

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing.In your essay, you should

1) describe the drawing briefly,

2) explain its intended meaning, and then

3) give your comments.

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

图片1.png 

 

【范文】What is graphically and explicitly depicted in the simple yet eye-catching drawing is that on the ground stands a father, who is having a talk with his son.Impressively, at second glance, it is not difficult to observe that the boy, dressed in a traditional Chinese costume, expresses his concern about studying drama, while his father offer some words of encouragement.

Without a doubt, no boy who was born and raised in China could be ignorant that China is an ancient nation with a long history and splendid traditional culture.Traditional dramas, like Peking opera, are the national essence of our culture, which are not only part of the national heritage, but also part of a living and continuing culture.However, traditional culture has been subject to the impact and damage caused by network culture.It is a not uncommon occurrence that quite a few people show too little enthusiasm for traditional dramas.Instead, they are more than willing to follow the popular culture.

While popular culture is completely transforming people's thoughts and ways of thinking, we are supposed to cherish the roots of national culture and build cultural confidence.Accordingly, it is my view that national culture should be preserved and cherished as priceless spiritual treasure.

 

 

如果考生有其他疑问,可以联系芙蓉厦大考研网右侧的咨询老师。

 

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